Murray, 60, left from the back door of the jail in a police cruiser shortly after midnight local time. Murray's lawyer said he was not being released for good behavior but for credit for time served. Murray was given an additional day of credit for every day he served.
In 2011, Murray was sentenced to four years in imprisonment for involuntary manslaughter after he treated Michael Jackson with the powerful surgical anesthetic drug propofol.
Even before his release, Murray was already looking to get back into medicine. Lawyers for the former doctor have filed petitions in Texas to have his medical license reinstated.
Texas officially revoked Murray's license in August -- the first state to do so -- following his trial. His medical licenses in California and Nevada had already been suspended following his arrest. According to Murray's attorney, Valerie Wass, the California medical board will wait until all appeals have been exhausted before making its decision on revoking his license.
Wass said he was hopeful he would be vindicated on appeal and that he would be able to practice medicine again.
"He's going to fight it. I think it will be very difficult in California if they uphold the judgment," Wass told ABCNews.com Sunday. "He's very hopeful. He's going to practice medicine somewhere is my understanding. ... He's prepared to go to federal court to fight."
Murray's Texas attorney, Charles Peckham, told ABCNews.com they were hoping to reverse the revocation of Murray's license, since the California Medical Board was waiting until the appeals process was over making a final decision.
"Dr. Murray's position is and always been he will be vindicated in all of this," Peckham said. "He is a good doctor and he needs to get back to the practice of medicine for the patients who need it."
Earlier comments that Murray would pursue getting his medical license prompted Katherine Jackson's attorney, Brian Panish, to release a statement to ABC News, saying, "We hope he can never practice medicine again and will not violate his Hippocratic oath and hurt another patient."
The King of Pop's mother, Katherine Jackson, and his three children -- Prince, Paris and Blanket -- filed a wrongful death suit against concert promoter AEG Live LLC in 2010, claiming that the company was negligent in hiring Murray to tend to the singer. Earlier this month, the jury in the case ruled in favor of AEG.
ABC News' Anthony Castellano contributed to this story.